ini kamus tentang literature
The application of specific psychological principles (particularly those of Sigmund Freud and Jacques Lacan [zhawk lawk-KAWN]) to the study of literature. Psychoanalytic criticism may focus on the writer’s psyche, the study of the creative process, the study of psychological types and principles present within works of literature, or the effects of literature upon its readers (Wellek and Warren, p. 81). In addition to Freud and Lacan, major figures include Shoshona Felman, Jane Gallop, Norman Holland, George Klein, Elizabeth Wright, Frederick Hoffman, and, Simon Lesser.
Unconscious – the irrational part of the psyche unavailable to a person’s consciousness except through dissociated acts or dreams.
Freud’s model of the psyche:
* Id – completely unconscious part of the psyche that serves as a storehouse of our desires, wishes, and fears. The id houses the libido, the source of psychosexual energy.
* Ego – mostly to partially (<–a point of debate) conscious part of the psyche that processes experiences and operates as a referee or mediator between the id and superego.
* Superego – often thought of as one’s “conscience”; the superego operates “like an internal censor [encouraging] moral judgments in light of social pressures” (123, Bressler – see General Resources below).
Lacan’s model of the psyche:
* Imaginary – a preverbal/verbal stage in which a child (around 6-18 months of age) begins to develop a sense of separateness from her mother as well as other people and objects; however, the child’s sense of sense is still incomplete.
* Symbolic – the stage marking a child’s entrance into language (the ability to understand and generate symbols); in contrast to the imaginary stage, largely focused on the mother, the symbolic stage shifts attention to the father who, in Lacanian theory, represents cultural norms, laws, language, and power (the symbol of power is the phallus–an arguably “gender-neutral” term).
* Real – an unattainable stage representing all that a person is not and does not have. Both Lacan and his critics argue whether the real order represents the period before the imaginary order when a child is completely fulfilled–without need or lack, or if the real order follows the symbolic order and represents our “perennial lack” (because we cannot return to the state of wholeness that existed before language).
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