Carnival – “For Bakhtin, carnival reflected the ‘lived life’ of medieval and early modern peoples. In carnival, official authority and high culture were jostled ‘from below’ by elements of satire, parody, irony, mimicry, bodily humor, and grotesque display. This jostling from below served to keep society open, to liberate it from deadening…” (Bressler 276 – see General Resources below).
Heteroglossia – “refers, first, to the way in which every instance of language use – every utterance – is embedded in a specific set of social circumstances, and second, to the way the meaning of each particular utterance is shaped and influenced by the many-layered context in which it occurs” (Sarah Willen, “Dialogism and Heteroglossia”)
Monologism – “having one single voice, or representing one single ideological stance or perspective, often used in opposition to the Bakhtinian dialogical. In a monological form, all the characters’ voices are subordinated to the voice of the author” (Malcolm Hayward).
Polyphony – “a term used by Mikhail Bakhtin to describe a dialogical text which, unlike a monological text, does not depend on the centrality of a single authoritative voice. Such a text incorporates a rich plurality and multiplicity of voices, styles, and points of view. It comprises, in Bakhtin’s phrase, “a plurality of independent and unmerged voices and consciousnesses, a genuine polyphony of fully valid voices” (Henderson and Brown – Glossary of Literary Theory).